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HadISD - global sub-daily station dataset

HadISD is a global sub-daily dataset based on the ISD dataset from NOAA's NCDC. As well as station selection criteria, a suite of quality control tests has been run on the major climatological variables. The data span of version 2 is 1/1/1931 to the end of 2017 and each station is available individually. The first version of HadISD was (covering 1973-2011).

Current Version - v2.0.2.2017f (23 March 2018)

HadISD v1.0.x has been superceded and is no longer being updated. Previous versions are available at the links below.

The final version of HadISD. is now available here. This supercedes HadISD. This new version spans 1/1/1931 to 1/1/2018. There will be no further updates to this version of the dataset until January 2019 where we intend to release v2.0.3.2018p, even if there are updates to the ISD data at NCDC. If you see anything untoward in this dataset, do let us know.

A station listing with IDs, names and location information is here (also with names). The data are provided as netCDF files, one file per station. The variables that are quality controlled are: temperature, dewpoint temperature, sea-level pressure, wind speed and direction, cloud data (total, low, mid and high level). Also included in the files are past significant weather and precipitation depth & accumulation period, but these have not been quality controlled and we make no guarantees about their quality and completness. Also available are the quality control flags and the data values which have been removed in the quality control process.

Precipitation in HadISD: For users wishing to use the precipitation information available in HadISD, we ask them to take care and familiarise themselves with both the HadISD and the ISD documentation. The precip1_depth field derives from the first ISD precipitation field, and must be used with the precip1_period field, as the "1" in the name does not refer to hourly accumulations. Also, despite the time dimension being in hours, the precipitation accumulations may refer to longer time periods, detailed in precip1_period. Furthermore, we note here that the precipitation depths have not been quality controlled and users should confirm for themselves that the data are sufficiently free of erroneous measurements for their purposes (RJHD 26-February 2018).

Previous Versions

Other versions of HadISD available through this website are:

For older versions please contact the dataset maintainers.

Brief description of the data

Individual stations within the ISD were composited when it was appropriate to do so. Then stations were selected on the basis of their length of record and reporting frequency. These 8103 stations were passed through a suite of automated quality control tests designed to remove bad data while keeping the extremes. None of the ISD flags were used. The QC tests focussed on the temperature, dewpoint temperature and sea-level pressure variables, although some were applied to the wind speed and direction and cloud data. The data files also contain other variables which were pulled through from the raw ISD record, but have had no QC applied. Some final filtering was performed to select those stations which in our opinion are most useful for climate studies. Note: These data have not yet been homogenised and so trend fitting should be undertaken with caution, however homogeneity information is available here

Keep in touch

Follow us on twitter: @metofficeHadOBS for updates, news and announcements.

For more detailed information, follow our HadISD blog. Here we describe bug fixes, routine updates and other exploratory analysis.

HadISD sample image

Go to download page v2.0.2.2017f data are available from the download page. Please read the terms and conditions.

Commercial and media enquiries

You can access the Met Office Customer Centre, any time of the day or night by phone, fax or e-mail. Trained staff will help you find the information or products that are right for you.
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When using the dataset in a paper, the following are the correct citations to use. Please also state the version number used

Dunn, R. J. H., et al. (2016), Expanding HadISD: quality-controlled, sub-daily station data from 1931, Geoscientific Instrumentation, Methods and Data Systems, 5, 473-491

Dunn, R. J. H., et al. (2014), Pairwise homogeneity assessment of HadISD, Climate of the Past, 10, 1501-1522

Dunn, R. J. H., et al. (2012), HadISD: A Quality Controlled global synoptic report database for selected variables at long-term stations from 1973-2011, Climate of the Past, 8, 1649-1679

Smith, A., et al. (2011): The Integrated Surface Database: Recent Developments and Partnerships. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 92, 704-708

Quality Control Code

The python code used for the station selection and quality control can be found on github.
The IDL code used for the quality control and final filtering for version 1 can be found here.
We do not intend to provide in-depth support for this code. We emphasise that the choices we have made in the QC and also the final filtering are one of a number of other equally reasonable choices, and encourage other interested parties to develop their own QC and filtering procedures to allow the structural uncertainties of this sub-daily dataset to be investigated.

Homogeneity Assessment

We have assessed the homogeneity of four of the observed meteorological variables present in HadISD: temperature, dew point temperature, sea-level pressure and wind speed. This has been performed on monthly averages of the sub-daily data, and is fully described in Dunn et al, 2014, Climate of the Past, 10, 1501-1522. The homogeneity assessment results for v2.0.2.2017f are available for download here.

Online Material

A number of summary and diagnostic outputs from the quality control code as well as station lists for a number of selection criteria are available for v2.0.2.2017f here.

We have adapted our versioning system from CRUTEM4, and so the dataset numbering is of the form HadISD.X.Y.Z.1234i, and is outlined in more detail in the paper linked above. X is for a major change and would be accompanied by a peer-reviewed paper. Y is a more minor change, e.g. in one of the QC tests and would be described in a tech-note. Finally Z is a small change, for example addition or changes to data in the past. The last complete year of the dataset is given by 1234, and the final character shows if the dataset is f-final or p-preliminary. Therefore HadISD. would be the final version of the dataset containing data up to the end of 2012, and there have been some changes to past data over HadISD.

NEW: A number of images and movies created from HadISD to show its capabilities are here.

Dataset produced in collaboration with: